Can Goats Eat Alfalfa? Understanding the Benefits and Risks of Feeding Alfalfa to Goats

Goats are ruminants and require a diet that is high in fiber, making hay a crucial component of their diet. Alfalfa is a popular type of hay that is commonly fed to livestock, including goats. However, not all types of hay are suitable for goats, and alfalfa is no exception. In this article, we will explore whether goats can eat alfalfa, the benefits and risks of feeding alfalfa to goats, factors to consider when feeding alfalfa to goats, and alternatives to alfalfa for feeding goats.

Can Goats Eat Alfalfa?

Yes, goats can eat alfalfa, and in fact, alfalfa has several nutritional benefits for goats. Alfalfa is high in protein, calcium, and other minerals, which are essential for goats’ growth, development, and overall health. Additionally, alfalfa is a great source of energy, making it an ideal feed for lactating does and growing kids.

However, feeding alfalfa to goats also comes with potential risks. Alfalfa is a legume hay and contains higher levels of protein and calcium than grass hay. If fed in excess, alfalfa can lead to urinary calculi (also known as bladder stones), which is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition in male goats. Therefore, it is essential to feed alfalfa in moderation and to ensure that goats have access to plenty of water to prevent the formation of bladder stones.

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Factors to Consider When Feeding Alfalfa to Goats

Before feeding alfalfa to goats, there are several factors that goat owners should consider, including the age and health status of the goats, the quality and quantity of alfalfa, and the feeding schedule and grazing patterns.

Age and health status

Young goats, especially those under six months old, should not be fed alfalfa because it is too high in protein and calcium for their developing bodies. Additionally, goats with kidney or bladder issues or those prone to urinary calculi should not be fed alfalfa.

Quality and quantity of alfalfa

The quality of alfalfa hay can vary greatly, and it is important to choose high-quality alfalfa that is free of mold and dust. Additionally, goats should not be fed too much alfalfa because of the risk of urinary calculi. A good rule of thumb is to feed alfalfa in moderation and to balance it out with other types of hay.

Feeding schedule and grazing patterns

Goats should not be fed only alfalfa because it is high in protein and can lead to overeating and digestive issues. It is important to offer a balanced diet that includes other types of hay and fresh forage. Additionally, goats should have access to a grazing area to supplement their diet and provide them with exercise and mental stimulation.

Alternatives to Alfalfa for Feeding Goats

If feeding alfalfa to goats is not an option or if goat owners want to diversify their goats’ diet, there are several alternatives to alfalfa that can provide goats with the necessary nutrition. Other types of hay that are suitable for goats include Timothy, Bermuda, and Orchard grass. Additionally, fresh forage, such as clover, kale, and turnips, can provide goats with vitamins and minerals. Finally, commercial goat feed is also an option, but it should not be the sole source of nutrition for goats.


In summary, goats can eat alfalfa, but it should be fed in moderation and balanced out with other types of hay and fresh forage. Alfalfa has several nutritional benefits for goats, but it also comes with potential risks, particularly for male goats prone to urinary calculi.