Where Is The Best Soil In The Usa?

best soil in the USA

The success of any farming comes down to the quality of your soil. Like your plants, the soil is also a living thing needed to be nurtured to function correctly. If you intend to invest in gardens in America, you might ask: “Where is the best soil in the USA?” Well, what follows will bring you the best gardening experience ever.

How many types of soil are there? 

Soil is a broad term referring to the layer covering the surface of the earth. It includes rock, mulch, organic and inorganic materials. Soil is mainly classified by its texture and different forms of mineral and organic compositions. Based on those criteria, we have four main types of soil.

Types Of Soil - Sandy Soil, Clay Soil, Silt Soil, And Loamy Soil

Sandy soil

The fragmentation of rocks often forms sandy soil. So, it is the lowest type of soil in terms of nutrients and water holding capacity.

Silt soil

Silt is made up of rock and other mineral particles. Its size is in the middle range of sand and clay size. It is smoother and holds water better than sand.

Clay Soil

Clay is the smallest particle amongst sandy and silt soil. It is the densest kind of soil that does not drain well.

Loamy Soil

Loam is composed of sand, silt, and a little bit of clay. These combinations help it retain the beneficial properties of each material.

Where is the best soil in the USA?

Many researchers perceived the central valley of California’s soil to be the best in the USA. This place is 40 to 60 miles wide and stretches approximately 500 miles. It is a lowland region that extends from the Cascade Mountains to the Tehachapi Mountains and is bounded by the Coast Ranges and the Sierra Nevada.

The Central Valley is dominated by alluvial deposition from the Sacramento, San Joaquin, and other rivers. Alluvial sediments are found throughout the Central Valley and are of various ages. The deposits are incredibly fertile and crucial to subsistence farming in the area. So, it is one of the world’s most productive agricultural regions with more than 230 crops over the years.

Tips to manage soil quality

Manage for Soil Carbon | NRCS Soils

Good quality soil is essential for a healthy garden. Here are some tips that can serve as the basis for protecting the soil.

First, maintain drainage of the soil. Well-drained soils can dispose of water quickly and reduce the chances of runoff occurring and diffuse pollution risks. Well-drained soils usually keep valuable soils and nutrients on the farm.

Second, keep the soil covered with crops as much as possible. It is to protect the soil from raindrop impact. Manure residues on the surface may look untidy but do shelter it from the wind.

Last words,

Whether you are growing flowers or planters, understanding where the best soil in the USA is will give you better preparation before investing. No matter how much work you do in your garden, careful sowing or tending could be in vain if the quality of your soil is not up to scratch.

How Long Does It Take For A Pig To Have Babies?

How long does it take for a pig to have babies

Childbirth is one of the natural things of all living things on Earth to maintain their species. Each animal species, including humans, has its own unique and distinctive way of giving birth as well as the pregnancy period. As one of the most familiar animals to humans, especially farmers, how long does it take for a pig to have babies?

How long does it take for a pig to have babies?

The whole pregnancy period of a pig from conception to childbirth can take more than 10 months. Specifically, the gestation period of a pig follows a rule called “The Rule of Three” – 3 months, 3 weeks, and 3 days. A well-fed female pig can give birth to at least 10 piglets from each pregnancy and can deliver 2 litters per year.

A pig’s breeding period can be any time of the year, however, pigs can become infertile in the warmer months. Female pigs that are healthy and well-bred can give birth safely twice a year. However, some say that they can be ready to mate about a week after the piglets are weaned.

To safely breeding the pigs on the farm, farmers need to carefully observe the physical condition and health of their pigs, then prepare the facilities in advance to ensure safety and convenience for pigs to give birth.

Pig production cycle

There are 6 stages in the pig production cycle.

Breeding period

When female pigs reach puberty from 10–30 days, they will be introduced to boars around 25–28 weeks old. This is how the farmer determines if she is in heat or not. After that, the female pigs will be spontaneously mated with boars or inseminated artificially. It is considered responsible for animal welfare and a good way of animal treatment.

pig in heat

Gestation period

After being mated, the female pigs will be moved to the pregnant area of the pig barn. They will stay there for about 116 days of the pregnancy period. To ensure a comfortable pregnancy for the pig, the farmer must always make sure that the pig’s dwellings are clean and disinfected.

pig in pregnant

Birth giving

About a week before farrowing, they are transferred to the farrowing barn. In order for pigs to give birth safely, farmers need to thoroughly clean the breeding barn, and keep it clean, then wash pregnant female pigs with mild detergents and warm water before she goes to the barn for birth.

pig giving birth

Lactation period

The sows nurse the piglets for about 3-5 weeks in the farrowing area.

Weaning period

When the piglets are weaned, the sows are brought back to the pigpen area and the piglets are moved to a weaner place.

Growing period

Depending on the needs of the farms, growing pigs can be moved to a pig nurturing area on the same farm or another facility.

How to take care of the piglets?

Sometimes the number of piglets born after the birthing period of sows on the farm is very large. For that reason, the pig farmer needs certain skills to ensure the comprehensive development of the piglets.

Breastfeed is essential for piglets as soon as they are born, especially in the first hour after birth. However, if a sow dies during farrowing, the piglets can be raised by other sows.

If the sow dies and there is no foster mother, the farmer can choose to manually feed the piglets. To hand feed piglets, a farmer needs to follow these instructions:

  • Prepare a cleaned bottle with nipple for piglets to drink milk
  • Arrange a clean dry and warm box for newborn piglets so that they can stay in a warm place
  • Set feeding time for the piglets regularly every 1-2 hours.
  • Farmers can replace sow’s colostrum with cow’s colostrum as it contains the nutrients suitable for piglets.

The gestation period of a pig is the most important and dangerous time for female pigs. Without the care and well-prepared birthing facilities of the farmers, the sows could lose their lives due to the harsh birthing process and the piglets may not be born. This easily leads to a loss of the farmer’s revenue to offset the costs of livestock.

Are Pigs Ruminants?

are pigs ruminant

“Are pigs ruminants” might be a question that many people care about before adopting a pig. More people tend to get a pig as a pet nowadays. Pigs are known as intelligent and capable of emotional awareness. However, owning a pig is not easy. Pigs need special handling during the time.

So, we bring to you below the grasp of this animal and other relevant information. Keep reading and explore new things.

What are ruminant animals?

ruminal animals

Source: Wikipedia

Ruminant animals have stomachs divided into four compartments. More specifically, there are three pre-stomach chambers devoted to the fermentation of feedstuffs and an enzymatic rumen. Therefore, ruminants are also herbivores.

Because of the complicated tract, the food digestion process of ruminants occurs through two phases. They begin to digest immediately after eating food like other animals at first. The microorganisms that stay in some of the compartments will ferment the cellulose vegetables into the cud.

For the rest phase, ruminant animals regurgitate the cud and swallow one again. Some examples of ruminants are sheep, deer, buffalo, goats…

Are pigs ruminants?

Pigs are not ruminants because they have only one stomach compartment and a digestive process by enzymes. They are monogastric because pigs neither chew the cud nor digest the plant materials such as cellulose through fermentation.

Besides, pigs can eat and digest a variety of food. Contrary to the staple food of ruminants is grass and plants. To be considered highly social and intelligent animals, pigs are similar to humans in biological extent and often used for human medical research.

Pigs have little ability to ferment and digest fiber because they eliminate cellulose as an undigested material. They will be eager to forage on plants, but too much fiber causes your pigs to lose weight.

pig stomach

Consequently, pasture is a great playground for them, not the core source of nutrition. A pig can improve the ability to digest fiber overages and depend on plant maturity. Legumes would be better than grasses for pig’s digestion.

The kind of feedstuffs are essential for growth, body maintenance, and can be self-made by pig farmers for less cost. The crucial nutrients pigs needed are water, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, and minerals. But the amount of food supplied depends on the swine age. For example, an 8-week-pig should be supplied with 17-18% protein and older pigs should be fed around 15% protein in a day.

Pigs don’t sweat, so they tend to keep the body cool. Make sure that your pigs can access fresh and clean water. If they survive without water for around 2 or 3 days, pigs can suffer brain damage or die.

What is the difference between pigs and ruminant animals?

There are many factors explaining why pigs are non-ruminant animals.

1. Type of diet

Ruminant animals are herbivores, which means that they consume plant material as the main nutritions. Besides, pigs are omnivore  animals, enabling them to consume a wide range of food types like plant and animal materials.

2. Stomach

As we mentioned above, ruminant animals have a complicated stomach with four compartments contrasted to pigs have a one-compartment stomach.

Moreover, the digestive system of ruminants is long compared to the short pig’s digestive system.

3. Enzymes to digest proteins

Pigs produce enzymes for protein digestion, while ruminant animals are not capable of doing that. Ruminant animals ferment cellulose in their fiber food by microorganisms.

4. Chewing system

Due to the variety in diets such as plants and animals, pigs own four sharp canines. In contrast with ruminants that eat grass and plants, they have two blunt.

Ruminant animals have premolars and molars move in the lateral direction, while pigs have their teeth move vertically.

5. Saliva

Because ruminant animals have the digestive process more than once, they produce more saliva with no carbohydrate digestive enzymes during this period. With a single stomach, the digestion occurs once, pigs produce less saliva with carbohydrate digestive enzymes.

6. Regurgitation

The intricate gastrointestinal tract makes ruminant animals undergo regurgitation, while pigs do not experience regurgitation. If any regurgitation phenomenon occurs in pigs, these animals may be getting sick .

7. Liver

The liver of the ruminant animals is larger than the liver of pigs.

8. Time to digest food

It takes a longer time for ruminant animals to digest plant material. While pigs take comparatively less time for their digestion. Furthermore, ruminant animals digest all plant carbohydrates including cellulose while pigs do not digest cellulose.

Bottom Lines

Hopefully, this article provided you with better knowledge about pigs, and you will no more wonder whether pigs are ruminants or not. Having a good understanding of pigs will help you considerably during the foster care process. Know what nutrients pigs need, avoid threats to their safety, and maintain healthy animals to create successful goals as you expected.

Can Goats Eat Oak Leaves?

Can goats eat oak leaves

While oak leaves and acorns are the primary food for many wild animals, they pose a toxicity risk to some herbivores including horses, cattle, and sheep. “Can goats eat oak leaves” has been a controversial question among goat raisers. This article is going to answer the question and give you some tips to take care of your goats better.

Are oak leaves poisonous?

Oak leaves contain tannic acid and other tannins that are toxic when consumed in large amounts. These poisons can cause severe damage to the gastrointestinal system and kidneys once the toxins are converted to a series of acids and alcohols.

As a result, the one eating them can experience vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal discomfort. In rare cases, oak leaves poisoning can lead to death. This is the reason why oak is one of the two plants thought by the USDA (The United States Department of Agriculture) to be responsible for ruminant deaths.

Can goats eat oak leaves?

Yes, goats can eat oak leaves. Taking in a moderate amount of oak leaves is fairly harmless to goats, especially when their intake mixed with other goods such as hay and grass.

Having some oak leaves is also very good for scouring goats because oak is binding. This is because goats have a relatively high ability to detoxify oak toxicity.

However, large amounts of ingested oak leaves can induce severe illnesses to your goats such as constipation, anorexia, colic (pain in the abdomen), blood in the urine, kidney damage, dehydration, fluid accumulation in the legs (edema).

Goat eating oak leaves

How to treat your goats if they eat too many oak leaves?

There is no antidote for oak leaves poisoning. Activated charcoal has been known to be the most effective treatment for oak leaves poisoning if given immediately after ingestion, as it can absorb toxins and allow them to be excreted from the digestive system.

Another common sign of oak toxicity is dehydration and intravenous fluid therapy is considered to be helpful in this case. This will help prevent water loss from diarrhea and help prevent the risk of renal failure. This therapy can also help enhance the goat’s circulatory system and prevent shock in severe cases of oak toxicosis.

How to protect your goats from oak poisoning?

Goats typically consume a number of different plant species in one day and can utilize some poisonous plants because they know what is good for them and do not eat too many poisonous plants. However, if there is a shortage of primary forage and browse, the goats will eat lower quality foods including noxious plants.

There is also anecdotal evidence that some goats will develop an extreme liking for oak leaves and will overindulge to the point of illness. So, having some tips at hand to protect your goats from oak poisoning is necessary.

Feed oak leaves in moderation

Firstly, you should feed oak leaves in moderation as a very small part of their diet and choose the leaves that have the least tannin. Studies have shown that mature leaves are less toxic than early spring growth and red and black oak varieties contain the most tannin while white oak varieties contain the least.

Fence off oak trees

Besides, after heavy winds or a storm, there may be so many oak leaves and acorns on the ground. So, you should fence off oak trees and keep your goats out of the wind-path of falling leaves. If there are oak trees near the fence line of your goat’s pasture, clearing fallen branches after a storm is a good practice. I recommend you should choose the best fence for goats on the market to bring more efficiency!

Keep goats away from ponds with soaked oak leaves

And the last reminder is that before introducing goats to a browsing area, check the area to find out any problem with the local plants and you should not water them from ponds that have large amounts of oak leaves soaking in them because tannins are water-soluble.

Last words,

In short, goats can eat oak leaves, but in moderation. The times during the year, the maturity of oak leaves and the varieties of oak leaves also determine the amount of toxicity in them. So, goat raisers should be careful when feeding oak leaves to their goats.

Do Pigs Eat Anything And Everything?

Do pigs eat anything and everything

Pigs are raised popularly all over the world. They provide valuable products to humans, including pork, lard, leather, glue, fertilizer, and medicines. Do you wonder what pigs eat? Pigs are known to be omnivores. So, do pigs eat anything and everything? Here we will explore some fun facts about pigs and eating habits.

Why are pigs omnivores?

Pigs are classified as omnivores since they eat both plants and animal matter. They eat a variety of food items in the wild, including insects, reptiles, rats, mice, baby rabbits, bird nestling and eggs, carrion, roots, leaves, nuts, fruit, grain, garbage, milk, cheese, etc.

They use their noses, not only for sniffing and locating but also for rooting in the ground to search for food. Their sharp fangs also help them find and consume food.

Do pigs eat anything and everything?

Pigs will eat anything edible. In other words, they will eat whatever is available and appeal to them, including what they can catch.

Wild boar is a species that can survive almost anywhere, eating anything such as roots, fruits, insects, rodents, and small reptiles. Domestic pigs usually eat feed made from corn, wheat, soybeans, barley, or eat poultry. Pigs raised on farms are often fed “haphazard”, consisting of vegetables, fruit peels, and other leftovers.

pigs eat everything

Pigs are indeed omnivores, but in reality, pigs might refuse food that they do not find appealing. Wild pigs eat everything according to their needs. It is very important to understand the food needs of domesticated pigs and provide them with the right diet.

While some pigs eat almost anything, others do not like all foods as people think they do. Pigs are likely to eat nearly everything that comes their way, but that does not mean they should. And, the fact that they can eat everything does not mean they should eat everything.

Do pigs eat people? 

Pigs can theoretically eat humans because they are omnivores and natural scavengers. A hungry pig can eat almost anything they can chew include human flesh.

However, not all pigs are man-eaters. If the pig is big enough that has force in the jaws to crush bigger bones, it could eat a human corpse completely. It is like a horrible game when you eat pork, pigs can eat you too.

But, don’t be so worried. Pigs often act like domesticated animals which are quite friendly and respond well to humans.

What to feed pigs?

Anything a pig eats affects its growth, health, behavior, reproduction, and overall life. Even if pigs are known to have a “steel stomach” (meaning they can eat almost anything), it would be safer to provide them the right foods. The farmer must be knowledgeable about pigs to follow a healthy pig diet.

One to keep in mind is to choose the right food depending on the pig’s age. Growing pigs eat large rations, so they should be fed several times a day with various foods. Sows are fed a limited amount of feed. They finish the amount in the morning and then are left to starve the rest of the day until the next day.

what to feed pigs

Feeding pigs what they want to eat may not be good for their health. Although they eat all, vegetables are important to their diet. Pigs are healthiest on a high-fiber diet.

Farmers feed pigs a diet of high-quality grains such as barley, wheat, and corn to fuel pigs, soybeans, and canola meal that provide protein. It allows higher quality, well-monitored feed, free of by-products. Tomatoes, potatoes, cucumbers, pumpkin, and some greens are all delicious foods for pigs.

What to avoid feeding pigs?

Avoid feeding them leftovers as this could affect their health. Also, inedible things like paper, wood, and hazardous waste should be out of the pig’s reach.

Do not feed pigs anything moldy, slimy, and spoiled food. Especially, avoid giving fruit to piglets as they can be dangerous if swallowed.

Most pigs instinctively will not eat poisonous food. However, if you happen to feed pigs with some fungi without knowing them well, it is best to avoid wild fungi as they might be poisonous.

In addition, you should avoid feeding pigs with other pets such as dog and cat food. Pigs can still eat those foods and survive, but they can lead to weaker bodies and an unstable immune system.

Final Words

The above article is an overview of the pig’s diet of pigs. I believe that when you are reading this line, you’ve known that pigs do not eat anything and everything. If you want more information on the nutrition requirement of specific breeds of pigs, consult your veterinarian.


How Long Can A Pig Live?

How Long Can A Pig Live

Pigs are known as one of the most intelligent and social animals in the world. So, how long can a pig live? How long can this animal be your companion? Are there any ways to increase their lifespan? Well, you have the answers in this article.

How long can a pig live?

A well-cared pig can have an average life expectancy of 15 to 18 years, estimates range to more than 20 years whereas the lifespan of a wild pig is only 4 to 8 years on average.

Vietnamese Pot-Bellied Pigs

They were the first domesticated pets in Southeast Asia and have gained popularity in the U.S for a long time. If it receives proper nutrition and medical care, a Vietnamese pot-bellied pig can live for 20 years or beyond.

Oscar was crown by Guinness World Records as the world’s oldest pig. He died in 2010 when he was 21 years and 13 days old.

Vietnamese Pot-Bellied Pigs

Wild pigs

Wild pigs originated in Eurasia and were brought across the Atlantic to North America by Spanish explorers more than 400 years ago. Wild pigs that have bred and hybridized with domestic pigs are termed “feral.”

A wild pig can expect to live up to 20 years. Due to high mortality rates from predation, their average life expectancy ranges only from 4 to 8 years.

Farmed pigs

If a pig is intended as food animal, it is raised from 6 to 7 months to reach the market weight of 250 pounds. If for breeding, pigs will stay on the farm around 1.5 years longer.

If you release farmed pigs, they can have a tendency to live to their full lifespan of 20 years.

Furthermore, they will likely double or triple in size over the next several years. Most full-grown sows reach a weight of over 500 pounds while mature boars may easily weigh in excess of 1,000.

Caring pigs for longer life

Below are some essential ways to help you taking care of your pigs effectively.


There is no need to raise pigs indoor. An environmentally controlled area with heat, cooling, and adequate air exchange hourly is the perfect environment to raise them.

Remember to provide your pigs with a shelter system that can give them shade in the summer and protect them from rain or snow.

The space requirement depends on the number and the age of pigs. A pregnant sow should have a farrowing crate to avoid lying on her newborn pigs. For growing pigs, provide them with a minimum space of 3 square feet per 30-40 pounds piglets while it is recommended that the pigpen should increase to 4 square feet for those weight 40-100 pounds. Pigs of over 150 pounds weight should have at least 6 square feet of space.

Feed intake

optimal feed take

Source: https://www.pig333.com/

Nutrition feeding and rations also vary with the stages of growth. The dietary vitamin level for starter, grower, finisher and gestation or lactation is 20%, 16%, 14%, and 12-15% respectively. If constipation happens during lactation, add magnesium sulfate or potassium chloride to the sow’s diet.

According to some studies, in feeding growing pigs, a ration with pellets or a coarsely ground diet will have a better gain and fewer stomach ulcers compared to a finely ground feed.

Portable water must always be available to your pigs. If the water runs out, slowly add small amounts of water every 30 minutes until the pigs fulfill their needs. It normally takes 4 to 6 hours for them to rehydrates but regular testing of the water helps to minimize diseases and health-related issues.


It is suggested to clip the needle (canine) and give them an iron injection at 1 – 3 days of age. When the piglets are 2 weeks old, they can be fed a pre-starter diet containing milk products before weaning.

In general, pigs are castrated at about one week old. Castration should be done at an early age, preferably at a week before weaning and no later than 1 month of age. Moreover, ear notching and tail docking should be done before 1 week old in order to prevent cannibalism.

Vaccinations for pigs

Vaccinations for pigs

It is advised that vaccinations of the piglets can start at 4-6 weeks old. Vaccines commonly used on pig farms include actinobacillus, circovirus, histophilus, erysipelas, parvovirus, mycoplasma, salmonella, pseudorabies, and clostridial diseases. Several weeks before farrowing, the mother needs to be given TGE, escherichia coli, clostridium perfringens.

Always be mindful that each herd can have individual vaccination requirements. Read the label carefully and seek advice from the vet before medicating any pig.


I hope that you will no longer wonder how long a pig can live after reading the article. As you can see, the potential maximum life span of pigs is much longer than their production age. In addition, some beneficial information above can help to raise and manage them better to achieve your production goals.

What Do Baby Pigs Eat?

what can baby pigs eat

A nutritious diet with a balanced ration for any pig is a must to achieve its potential growth and optimize your profitability. So, what do baby pigs eat? This question must be seriously taken care of as a baby pig’s health will lay a foundation for its development later. Let’s find out the answer in the following post.

What do baby pigs eat?

Newborn piglets need colostrum from the sow. As piglets are born without any immune protection, colostrum is the only way to protect them in this critical phase. Colostrum contains a rich source of highly digestible nutrients and natural growth factors for the normal development of vital life-sustaining organs.

If newborn piglets do not receive enough colostrum from the sow, the chance of survival is not high.

If porcine colostrum is unavailable, goat milk can be the substitute. Milk replacer needs to be in good condition and remember to discard any milk replacer that you do not use within 12 hours. Make sure to warm the milk to above human body temperature, like a baby human’s bottle.

You can feed baby pigs with an eyedropper while they receive colostrum. When newborn piglets start drinking replacer, you can switch to a bottle or put the liquid in a flat dish.

According to the Oregon State University Extension Service website, newborn piglets nurse about 15 times in their first day of life, and each nursing episode lasts roughly five minutes.

During the first 7 days, piglets need feeding every 3 to 4 hours. When they are 2 weeks old, you can feed them four times a day. At 3 weeks, start them on solid pig chow. Continue nursing them at least 3 times daily until they wean, after 1 or 2 months.

Taking care of baby pigs

Caring for piglets requires a higher degree of care and knowledge than other baby animals because they are born in large litters and very reliant on one another for warmth and friendship.

baby pig care

The first few weeks are important in laying the groundwork for pigs to have a healthy life. Below are some useful tips to help you ensure baby pigs’ health and wellbeing, aiming at decreasing early piglet mortality and increasing weaning weights.

Temperature control

Newborn pigs’ bodies contain little fat reserve and almost no hair. Therefore, they are extremely sensitive to cold weather and drafts, which can cause diarrhea, lymphadenitis, higher mortality, and even an increase in tail biting.

The ideal temperature for newborn pigs is at 95°F. You can reduce the temperature by 5° weekly until the pig is weaned. Gas or electric heaters, heat lamps, or heated floor mats are common heat devices in farrowing houses.

Don’t forget to check the sow’s temperature immediately after birth and every 12 hours of the first two or three days.

Nutrition intake

Receiving adequate colostrum and milk from the sow is crucial for piglets’ survival and long-term health. During the first 24 hours, they should nurse 15 times and receive his nutrition solely from the sow for his first 2 to 3 weeks. They should be nursed until 6 to 8 weeks old.

A newborn pig should eat a half-ounce of milk per feeding while a week-old piglet should consume 1 ounce at each feeding. Remember to feed them every four hours.


Provide adequate bedding from hay, straw, wood shavings, or shredded paper to keep your piglets stay healthy and comfortable.

Sanitation is also important. In addition to scrub the farrowing quarters with 2% of chlorine solution to eliminate dirt and bacteria, scrub the sow with soap and water to prevent her from spreading bacteria to her piglets.

Supplemental Iron

supplying iron to baby pig

Supplying iron to baby pig

After birth, dose the navel in iodine antiseptic to prevent infection and anemia. Newborn pigs require a great deal of this mineral since they are deficient in iron and do not receive enough this mineral from the sow milk.

Supplying uncontaminated soil in the pig area or a box of dirt for them to play in is another method of supplying iron. This is an easy way to help them receive adequate iron naturally in lieu of through an injection which has been known to cause diarrhea.


So, I guess you have already known what baby pigs eat as well as the importance of colostrum in surviving them. Taking care of baby pigs may require you more time and energy but I’m sure the result will deserve what you paid. Hope you all enjoy your time with your tiny yet cute piglets!

All You Need To Know About Peasant Farming

Peasant Farming

Agriculture has been the basis of every civilization for thousands of years. It is an essential source of livelihood in many parts of the world. In fact, the vast majority of the rural populations of developing countries rely on agriculture in general and on peasant farming in particular. This article will give you a general view of this mode of production and how important it is to human lives.

What is peasant farming?

Peasant farming is an agricultural mode of production that refers to a type of small scale agriculture. It includes ten interconnected rules, such as seeking self-sufficiency in all of the farm’s operations, respecting the surrounding environment, and saving scarce resources.

An average peasant farm is less than 10 acres in size. This is comprised of family type farms, where a large part of the production is consumed by the family. In this farming system, the farmer combines in himself, the rules of an owner, a controller, and an operator of the farm. Therefore, family members account for most of the laborers.

Peasant farmers used most part of the arable land they controlled, beyond that around their residences for growing crops. They grow a diversity of crops which is appropriate to their climate including tomatoes, cabbages, spinach, peppers, ginger, yams, legumes, and rice. Peasant farmers also might grow a few fruit and nut. Crop rotation is usually practiced to maximize productivity.

Aside from a peasant’s house and land, peasants also rear some livestock including chickens, ducks, and other small animals. These animals are cheap to obtain, easy to be trained and they can provide a large number of their products to everyday life.

Advantages and disadvantages of peasant farming

Each farming system has its own advantages as well as disadvantages, so does peasant farming.

Advantages of peasant farming

advantages of Peasant Farming

Easy management

Supervision of work in the industry always presents a challenge because of the large area of operation for a worker.

Meanwhile, the small size of the peasant system requires less attention, hence the owner himself can efficiently supervise the work of the laborers.

Moreover, the proprietor can give personal guidance and direct him to do his job in a particular way. In this way, both supervisors and laborers can work with full devotion and responsibility to increase output per head.

More employment

Due to the small-scale farm, the use of machinery becomes costly and limited. Consequently, the peasant system is done using mainly labor-intensive methods and traditional hand tools.

Immune to fluctuations

Peasant farmers generally neither purchase any input from the market nor sell any output, they cannot be affected by the fluctuations in the prices of various inputs or crops.

Greater productivity

Productivity per hectare on a peasant farm is larger compared to other systems. The main reason for this is the greater intensity of cropping. In other words, it requires greater use of labor per hectare on small farms when compared with that on a larger farm.

Furthermore, in large farms, they are much more likely to be monocultures while small farms tend to plant crop mixtures where the empty space between the rows is occupied by other crops.

Disadvantages of peasant farming

High cost of production

Limited resources and financial weakness makes it difficult for farm owners to purchase modern inputs for the farm. Indeed, the construction of farm buildings is relatively costly and the transformation of agriculture is more difficult owing to its small size.

The use of available resources is not optimum

Peasant family farms are units of both production and consumption. The resources of the farmer hence either remain unutilized or misutilized. What is more, the lack of division of labor leads to less profit for the proprietor.

The commercial motive is weak

Peasant farmers remain uninfluenced by the changes in the market forces because they neither purchase any goods from the market nor sell any surplus in the market. As a result, the crop patterns do not change with the fluctuation in prices remains un-remunerative.

The importance of peasant farming

According to the High-Level Panel of Experts of the Committee for World Food Security of the FAO, peasant farming contributes positively to food security, economic development, employment and income, productivity.

Plus, this model of agriculture has significant impacts on sustainability, landscape, biodiversity, climate, emancipation and cultural heritage.

On top of that, the peasant system contributes considerably more than other modes of farming, both in the Global North and in the Global South.

Denying space for the peasant system not only exposes a direct danger to the livelihoods of hundreds of millions of people around the world but also poses serious threats to food security, sustainability, and economic development.


Farming holds the backbone of developing countries’ economies. Although the farming form has changed significantly over the years, peasant farming still plays a vital role in employment, natural resource management, cultural heritage security, and economic development.


Different Types Of Farm Animal You Should Know

types of farm animal

There are loads of animals reared in farms for different purposes such as food supply, clothing materials, income, and so on. For that reason, it is essential to classify these domestic animals. Let’s take a look at the types of farm animals in this article below!

What are farm animals?

Farm animals are those animals that are reared on a farm with the main purpose is to produce something of value to humans, whether it is fibers, meat, egg, milk, honey, and lesser-known products, such as gelatin, or tallow.

Others are used as a beast of burden or herding animals while some are kept by hobbyists who do it more for the experience than the potential income.

Types of farm animal

There are numerous methods to classify farm animals. Generally, they are categorized based on the following criteria:

1. Based on the Biological characteristics


Birds include chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, and other birds that can provide meat and eggs. Furthermore, bird down and feather materials can be gathered and used for jackets, bedding, cushions, and pillows.

Hoofed animals

This group includes horses, cattle, sheep, goats, donkeys, and pigs. They are raised to produce commodities such as meat, milk, or labor like pulling loads, rounding up animals, etc. These hoofed animals can also be reared for their fur, wool, and angora.


Fish can be farmed to sustainably produce a supply of flesh for human consumption. Commonly farmed fish include salmon, trout, and tilapia.

Exotic farm animals

These animals are making inroads on farms but are still a little left of the center such as alpacas, llamas, ostriches, and emus. In addition to being raised for their fiber and wool, they are also kept for oil, game for hunting ranches, etc.

2. Based on the digestive system

type of digestive systems

Monogastric animals

Monogastric animals are those that have only 1 stomach where digestion occurs. They eat rations high in concentrates, including poultry, pig, horse, donkey, rabbit, guinea pig, and cane rats.

Ruminant animals

have complex stomachs and chew the cud. Ruminant animals are designed to eat forages, including goats, sheep, cattle, and buffalo.

Pseudo-ruminant animals

This group has a three-chamber stomach in the digestive system that allows them to eat large amounts of roughages like ruminants. Examples of pseudo-ruminants are camels, alpacas, horses, hamsters.

These animals significantly contribute to farms, ranging from meat, milk, and egg production to companionship and income generation.

3. Based on the purpose

Work animals

These animals are kept by humans and trained to perform tasks such as carrying loads, plowing, ridging, and many more. Work animals used for transportation include horses, camels, and donkeys. While bull or water buffalo can pull carts and ploughs, monkeys can be utilized to pick coconuts from palm trees.

Dairy animals

They are bred for the ability to produce large quantities of milk, including goats, sheep, donkeys, camels, and so on.

dairy farm animal

Guard animals

Since domesticated animals present particularly protective or territorial behavior, certain breeds like dogs and geese can be utilized to guard property.


They are raised primarily for meat and eggs but also for feathers, including chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, and guinea fowl.


Pets are kept by human beings as a source of companionship and recreation, including horses, dogs, cats, pigs, birds…

Aquatic animals

Aquatic animals are bred, raised, and harvested for meat including fish, shrimp, oyster other organisms in all types of water environments.

Popular animal breeds on farms

popular farm animals


Cows are one of the most popular breeds in the world. Cow’s milk is made into a variety of everyday products such as cheese, butter, cream, and yogurt whereas most of the body can be used for meat.


Sheep are popular to be a dual-purpose breed because they are suitable for both meat and fleece production. The four major products from sheep are lamb, mutton, wool, and milk.


Amongst domesticated animals, goats are one of the oldest. Like other breeds, goats are solitary, social and a great source of meat, milk, and even hair.


This type of animal also has a place on the farm. Their main purpose is to produce eggs or meat for human consumption.


This breed is prized for its meat. Ham, smoked pork, gammon, bacon, and sausage are other common products that are made from pork.


Raising farm animals is an enormous business. Those animals have always contributed to human societies by supplying food, pulling loads, guarding property, and so on. Hope that you have known about types of farm animals after reading my article and don’t get frustrated with tons of classification ways above!


What Is The Most Profitable Fish To Farm?

Most Profitable Fish To Farm

Today, the demand for fish and its product is growing continuously, hence there is no doubt that fish farming has become a money-making industry. However, some fish farmers are still struggling to be successful in this business as they still wonder “what is the most profitable fish to farm?” or “how to cut down on feed cost to maximize profit?”. Let’s find out the answers in my article below.

Challenges of fish farms

Farm fishing industry is a double-edged sword since it can help you sit on a goldmine or bring you closer to the abyss. Here comes the list of factors that can affect your fish farm so that you can handle them efficiently to access the profitability of the fish farming business.

Fish are too sensitive to manage

Most fish possess highly developed sense organs. Therefore, a minor mistake can lead to degradation or even mass fish deaths which may end in an enormous loss of income.

Fish farming consume significant amounts of capital

Unlike poultry or livestock, fish farming requires more thorough management strategies and tons of cash for pond building, fish feed cost, manpower used during cultivation and harvesting, and construction maintenance.


Selling fish is not easy

Due to production costs, fish from farms often cost more than fish from ponds, rivers, or sea. Consumers prefer cheaper fish, thus it is challenging to compete with other fish sellers.

All you get is flesh

If raising livestock and poultry can create by-products to sell to other farmers for extra profit (such as manure for plants), but in fishery, what you get is only flesh.

Popular fish species to farm

If you are new to the idea of fish farming, you might be wondering what fish species you should cultivate on your farm. Here is the reliable list of fish species that are suitable for aquaculture:

  • Catfish

Catfish is one of the easiest fish species to cultivate. This kind of fish is popular around the world because of its health benefits and market demand. The three most prominent catfish species include blue catfish, channel catfish, and flathead catfish.

  • Atlantic cod

Atlantic cod contributes a huge quantity in the fish farming business in Northern Europe and North America’s eastern coast. The market size is from 2 to 4 kg and is achieved within 24-36 months after hatching.

  • Grass carp

Grass carp is popular as white amur in the US. This is a freshwater fish, hence the flowing water and changes in water are significant to stimuli natural spawning. According to some studies, grass carp can live an average of 5 to 9 years, with the oldest surviving up to 11 years.

  • Rohu fish

Rohu farming is another lucrative business. Rohu is the most favored fish species among the cultivated Indian major carps used in carp polyculture systems. Under normal culture conditions, Rohu can attain 35-45cm total length and 700-800g in one year.

Rohu fish

  • Salmon

Salmon is one of the most widely consumed fish throughout the world. The three most common farmed salmon are Atlantic salmon, Chinook, and Coho. Farmed salmon are vaccinated to prevent them from disease outbreaks and rarely require additional medications.

  • Silver carp

Silver carp farming demands small capital investment. Silver carp is a freshwater species and can tolerate a wide range of temperatures (43-82°F). Pay attention to water quality to achieve a high hatching rate.

  • Tilapia

Tilapia is a well-known fish species in fish farming due to its high protein, large size, disease-resistant, and growth capabilities. It is a tropical fish, so the ideal water temperature for Tilapia is usually between 82 and 86°F.

  • Tuna

Tuna is carnivorous which means they can eat other fish. Farming tuna can be valuable owing to strong market demand, fast growth rate, the convenient ratio of edible meat to body weight, and tolerance to wide temperature conditions. Tuna is typically farmed in net pens offshore or in recirculation systems.

What is the most profitable fish to farm?

Due to the cost of pond or tank construction, water management, and maintenance together with the cost of other assets, you may not be making a profit in the first year. However, you can normally start making significant profits from the fish farming business after more than two fish production cycles.

Profit of fish farming relies on loads of factors:

  • Financial factors: feed costs, rent payment, labor costs…
  • Technical and biological factors: water and temperature, the type of pond, fish diseases…
  • Additional factors: location of farms, demand, and supply, special holiday celebrations…

Indeed, it is not easy to answer the question of what is the most profitable fish to farm as it depends mostly on the market demand. A fish may not do well locally but greatly on abroad.

Statistics showed that tilapia is becoming the most profitable fish to farm in many countries. It is one of the best-selling species and most widely-eaten like shrimp and salmon. On the other hand, this type of fish survives and breeds in warm water (82-86°F) and will die when the temperature drop below 55°F. Therefore, tilapia will thrive in warmer regions such as India, South Africa, Latin America, etc.

fish farming business

Reduce feed cost to get more profit

Feed often represent up to 70% of the operational cost for most fish farms, so appropriate feed management results in reducing feed costs, and enhancing production efficiency and profitability of farms. For most large or medium-scale fish farms, it is more economic-efficient to produce fish feed pellets by themselves rather than buying from local fish stores.

Different kinds of fish require marginally different vitamins, nutrients, and minerals. Accordingly, you can customize the food for specific fish to give your fish a healthy diet and tailor the food to the exact dietary requirements of them.


Fish farming is one of the fastest-growing sectors of the global food production industry. How much is it profitable – depends on many factors. Consequently, identify the most profitable fish to farm is the first step to maximize your profit margins.