How Long Can A Pig Live?

How Long Can A Pig Live

Pigs are known as one of the most intelligent and social animals in the world. So, how long can a pig live? How long can this animal be your companion? Are there any ways to increase their lifespan? Well, you have the answers in this article.

How long can a pig live?

A well-cared pig can have an average life expectancy of 15 to 18 years, estimates range to more than 20 years whereas the lifespan of a wild pig is only 4 to 8 years on average.

Vietnamese Pot-Bellied Pigs

They were the first domesticated pets in Southeast Asia and have gained popularity in the U.S for a long time. If it receives proper nutrition and medical care, a Vietnamese pot-bellied pig can live for 20 years or beyond.

Oscar was crown by Guinness World Records as the world’s oldest pig. He died in 2010 when he was 21 years and 13 days old.

Vietnamese Pot-Bellied Pigs

Wild pigs

Wild pigs originated in Eurasia and were brought across the Atlantic to North America by Spanish explorers more than 400 years ago. Wild pigs that have bred and hybridized with domestic pigs are termed “feral.”

A wild pig can expect to live up to 20 years. Due to high mortality rates from predation, their average life expectancy ranges only from 4 to 8 years.

Farmed pigs

If a pig is intended as food animal, it is raised from 6 to 7 months to reach the market weight of 250 pounds. If for breeding, pigs will stay on the farm around 1.5 years longer.

If you release farmed pigs, they can have a tendency to live to their full lifespan of 20 years.

Furthermore, they will likely double or triple in size over the next several years. Most full-grown sows reach a weight of over 500 pounds while mature boars may easily weigh in excess of 1,000.

Caring pigs for longer life

Below are some essential ways to help you taking care of your pigs effectively.

Pigpen

There is no need to raise pigs indoor. An environmentally controlled area with heat, cooling, and adequate air exchange hourly is the perfect environment to raise them.

Remember to provide your pigs with a shelter system that can give them shade in the summer and protect them from rain or snow.

The space requirement depends on the number and the age of pigs. A pregnant sow should have a farrowing crate to avoid lying on her newborn pigs. For growing pigs, provide them with a minimum space of 3 square feet per 30-40 pounds piglets while it is recommended that the pigpen should increase to 4 square feet for those weight 40-100 pounds. Pigs of over 150 pounds weight should have at least 6 square feet of space.

Feed intake

optimal feed take

Source: https://www.pig333.com/

Nutrition feeding and rations also vary with the stages of growth. The dietary vitamin level for starter, grower, finisher and gestation or lactation is 20%, 16%, 14%, and 12-15% respectively. If constipation happens during lactation, add magnesium sulfate or potassium chloride to the sow’s diet.

According to some studies, in feeding growing pigs, a ration with pellets or a coarsely ground diet will have a better gain and fewer stomach ulcers compared to a finely ground feed.

Portable water must always be available to your pigs. If the water runs out, slowly add small amounts of water every 30 minutes until the pigs fulfill their needs. It normally takes 4 to 6 hours for them to rehydrates but regular testing of the water helps to minimize diseases and health-related issues.

Sanitation

It is suggested to clip the needle (canine) and give them an iron injection at 1 – 3 days of age. When the piglets are 2 weeks old, they can be fed a pre-starter diet containing milk products before weaning.

In general, pigs are castrated at about one week old. Castration should be done at an early age, preferably at a week before weaning and no later than 1 month of age. Moreover, ear notching and tail docking should be done before 1 week old in order to prevent cannibalism.

Vaccinations for pigs

Vaccinations for pigs

It is advised that vaccinations of the piglets can start at 4-6 weeks old. Vaccines commonly used on pig farms include actinobacillus, circovirus, histophilus, erysipelas, parvovirus, mycoplasma, salmonella, pseudorabies, and clostridial diseases. Several weeks before farrowing, the mother needs to be given TGE, escherichia coli, clostridium perfringens.

Always be mindful that each herd can have individual vaccination requirements. Read the label carefully and seek advice from the vet before medicating any pig.

Conclusion

I hope that you will no longer wonder how long a pig can live after reading the article. As you can see, the potential maximum life span of pigs is much longer than their production age. In addition, some beneficial information above can help to raise and manage them better to achieve your production goals.

What Do Baby Pigs Eat?

what can baby pigs eat

A nutritious diet with a balanced ration for any pig is a must to achieve its potential growth and optimize your profitability. So, what do baby pigs eat? This question must be seriously taken care of as a baby pig’s health will lay a foundation for its development later. Let’s find out the answer in the following post.

What do baby pigs eat?

Newborn piglets need colostrum from the sow. As piglets are born without any immune protection, colostrum is the only way to protect them in this critical phase. Colostrum contains a rich source of highly digestible nutrients and natural growth factors for the normal development of vital life-sustaining organs.

If newborn piglets do not receive enough colostrum from the sow, the chance of survival is not high.

If porcine colostrum is unavailable, goat milk can be the substitute. Milk replacer needs to be in good condition and remember to discard any milk replacer that you do not use within 12 hours. Make sure to warm the milk to above human body temperature, like a baby human’s bottle.

You can feed baby pigs with an eyedropper while they receive colostrum. When newborn piglets start drinking replacer, you can switch to a bottle or put the liquid in a flat dish.

According to the Oregon State University Extension Service website, newborn piglets nurse about 15 times in their first day of life, and each nursing episode lasts roughly five minutes.

During the first 7 days, piglets need feeding every 3 to 4 hours. When they are 2 weeks old, you can feed them four times a day. At 3 weeks, start them on solid pig chow. Continue nursing them at least 3 times daily until they wean, after 1 or 2 months.

Taking care of baby pigs

Caring for piglets requires a higher degree of care and knowledge than other baby animals because they are born in large litters and very reliant on one another for warmth and friendship.

baby pig care

The first few weeks are important in laying the groundwork for pigs to have a healthy life. Below are some useful tips to help you ensure baby pigs’ health and wellbeing, aiming at decreasing early piglet mortality and increasing weaning weights.

Temperature control

Newborn pigs’ bodies contain little fat reserve and almost no hair. Therefore, they are extremely sensitive to cold weather and drafts, which can cause diarrhea, lymphadenitis, higher mortality, and even an increase in tail biting.

The ideal temperature for newborn pigs is at 95°F. You can reduce the temperature by 5° weekly until the pig is weaned. Gas or electric heaters, heat lamps, or heated floor mats are common heat devices in farrowing houses.

Don’t forget to check the sow’s temperature immediately after birth and every 12 hours of the first two or three days.

Nutrition intake

Receiving adequate colostrum and milk from the sow is crucial for piglets’ survival and long-term health. During the first 24 hours, they should nurse 15 times and receive his nutrition solely from the sow for his first 2 to 3 weeks. They should be nursed until 6 to 8 weeks old.

A newborn pig should eat a half-ounce of milk per feeding while a week-old piglet should consume 1 ounce at each feeding. Remember to feed them every four hours.

Sanitation

Provide adequate bedding from hay, straw, wood shavings, or shredded paper to keep your piglets stay healthy and comfortable.

Sanitation is also important. In addition to scrub the farrowing quarters with 2% of chlorine solution to eliminate dirt and bacteria, scrub the sow with soap and water to prevent her from spreading bacteria to her piglets.

Supplemental Iron

supplying iron to baby pig

Supplying iron to baby pig

After birth, dose the navel in iodine antiseptic to prevent infection and anemia. Newborn pigs require a great deal of this mineral since they are deficient in iron and do not receive enough this mineral from the sow milk.

Supplying uncontaminated soil in the pig area or a box of dirt for them to play in is another method of supplying iron. This is an easy way to help them receive adequate iron naturally in lieu of through an injection which has been known to cause diarrhea.

Conclusion

So, I guess you have already known what baby pigs eat as well as the importance of colostrum in surviving them. Taking care of baby pigs may require you more time and energy but I’m sure the result will deserve what you paid. Hope you all enjoy your time with your tiny yet cute piglets!

All You Need To Know About Peasant Farming

Peasant Farming

Agriculture has been the basis of every civilization for thousands of years. It is an essential source of livelihood in many parts of the world. In fact, the vast majority of the rural populations of developing countries rely on agriculture in general and on peasant farming in particular. This article will give you a general view of this mode of production and how important it is to human lives.

What is peasant farming?

Peasant farming is an agricultural mode of production that refers to a type of small scale agriculture. It includes ten interconnected rules, such as seeking self-sufficiency in all of the farm’s operations, respecting the surrounding environment, and saving scarce resources.

An average peasant farm is less than 10 acres in size. This is comprised of family type farms, where a large part of the production is consumed by the family. In this farming system, the farmer combines in himself, the rules of an owner, a controller, and an operator of the farm. Therefore, family members account for most of the laborers.

Peasant farmers used most part of the arable land they controlled, beyond that around their residences for growing crops. They grow a diversity of crops which is appropriate to their climate including tomatoes, cabbages, spinach, peppers, ginger, yams, legumes, and rice. Peasant farmers also might grow a few fruit and nut. Crop rotation is usually practiced to maximize productivity.

Aside from a peasant’s house and land, peasants also rear some livestock including chickens, ducks, and other small animals. These animals are cheap to obtain, easy to be trained and they can provide a large number of their products to everyday life.

Advantages and disadvantages of peasant farming

Each farming system has its own advantages as well as disadvantages, so does peasant farming.

Advantages of peasant farming

advantages of Peasant Farming

Easy management

Supervision of work in the industry always presents a challenge because of the large area of operation for a worker.

Meanwhile, the small size of the peasant system requires less attention, hence the owner himself can efficiently supervise the work of the laborers.

Moreover, the proprietor can give personal guidance and direct him to do his job in a particular way. In this way, both supervisors and laborers can work with full devotion and responsibility to increase output per head.

More employment

Due to the small-scale farm, the use of machinery becomes costly and limited. Consequently, the peasant system is done using mainly labor-intensive methods and traditional hand tools.

Immune to fluctuations

Peasant farmers generally neither purchase any input from the market nor sell any output, they cannot be affected by the fluctuations in the prices of various inputs or crops.

Greater productivity

Productivity per hectare on a peasant farm is larger compared to other systems. The main reason for this is the greater intensity of cropping. In other words, it requires greater use of labor per hectare on small farms when compared with that on a larger farm.

Furthermore, in large farms, they are much more likely to be monocultures while small farms tend to plant crop mixtures where the empty space between the rows is occupied by other crops.

Disadvantages of peasant farming

High cost of production

Limited resources and financial weakness makes it difficult for farm owners to purchase modern inputs for the farm. Indeed, the construction of farm buildings is relatively costly and the transformation of agriculture is more difficult owing to its small size.

The use of available resources is not optimum

Peasant family farms are units of both production and consumption. The resources of the farmer hence either remain unutilized or misutilized. What is more, the lack of division of labor leads to less profit for the proprietor.

The commercial motive is weak

Peasant farmers remain uninfluenced by the changes in the market forces because they neither purchase any goods from the market nor sell any surplus in the market. As a result, the crop patterns do not change with the fluctuation in prices remains un-remunerative.

The importance of peasant farming

According to the High-Level Panel of Experts of the Committee for World Food Security of the FAO, peasant farming contributes positively to food security, economic development, employment and income, productivity.

Plus, this model of agriculture has significant impacts on sustainability, landscape, biodiversity, climate, emancipation and cultural heritage.

On top of that, the peasant system contributes considerably more than other modes of farming, both in the Global North and in the Global South.

Denying space for the peasant system not only exposes a direct danger to the livelihoods of hundreds of millions of people around the world but also poses serious threats to food security, sustainability, and economic development.

Conclusion

Farming holds the backbone of developing countries’ economies. Although the farming form has changed significantly over the years, peasant farming still plays a vital role in employment, natural resource management, cultural heritage security, and economic development.

Reference:

Different Types Of Farm Animal You Should Know

types of farm animal

There are loads of animals reared in farms for different purposes such as food supply, clothing materials, income, and so on. For that reason, it is essential to classify these domestic animals. Let’s take a look at the types of farm animals in this article below!

What are farm animals?

Farm animals are those animals that are reared on a farm with the main purpose is to produce something of value to humans, whether it is fibers, meat, egg, milk, honey, and lesser-known products, such as gelatin, or tallow.

Others are used as a beast of burden or herding animals while some are kept by hobbyists who do it more for the experience than the potential income.

Types of farm animal

There are numerous methods to classify farm animals. Generally, they are categorized based on the following criteria:

1. Based on the Biological characteristics

Birds

Birds include chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, and other birds that can provide meat and eggs. Furthermore, bird down and feather materials can be gathered and used for jackets, bedding, cushions, and pillows.

Hoofed animals

This group includes horses, cattle, sheep, goats, donkeys, and pigs. They are raised to produce commodities such as meat, milk, or labor like pulling loads, rounding up animals, etc. These hoofed animals can also be reared for their fur, wool, and angora.

Fish

Fish can be farmed to sustainably produce a supply of flesh for human consumption. Commonly farmed fish include salmon, trout, and tilapia.

Exotic farm animals

These animals are making inroads on farms but are still a little left of the center such as alpacas, llamas, ostriches, and emus. In addition to being raised for their fiber and wool, they are also kept for oil, game for hunting ranches, etc.

2. Based on the digestive system

type of digestive systems

Monogastric animals

Monogastric animals are those that have only 1 stomach where digestion occurs. They eat rations high in concentrates, including poultry, pig, horse, donkey, rabbit, guinea pig, and cane rats.

Ruminant animals

have complex stomachs and chew the cud. Ruminant animals are designed to eat forages, including goats, sheep, cattle, and buffalo.

Pseudo-ruminant animals

This group has a three-chamber stomach in the digestive system that allows them to eat large amounts of roughages like ruminants. Examples of pseudo-ruminants are camels, alpacas, horses, hamsters.

These animals significantly contribute to farms, ranging from meat, milk, and egg production to companionship and income generation.

3. Based on the purpose

Work animals

These animals are kept by humans and trained to perform tasks such as carrying loads, plowing, ridging, and many more. Work animals used for transportation include horses, camels, and donkeys. While bull or water buffalo can pull carts and ploughs, monkeys can be utilized to pick coconuts from palm trees.

Dairy animals

They are bred for the ability to produce large quantities of milk, including goats, sheep, donkeys, camels, and so on.

dairy farm animal

Guard animals

Since domesticated animals present particularly protective or territorial behavior, certain breeds like dogs and geese can be utilized to guard property.

Poultry

They are raised primarily for meat and eggs but also for feathers, including chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, and guinea fowl.

Pets

Pets are kept by human beings as a source of companionship and recreation, including horses, dogs, cats, pigs, birds…

Aquatic animals

Aquatic animals are bred, raised, and harvested for meat including fish, shrimp, oyster other organisms in all types of water environments.

Popular animal breeds on farms

popular farm animals

Cows

Cows are one of the most popular breeds in the world. Cow’s milk is made into a variety of everyday products such as cheese, butter, cream, and yogurt whereas most of the body can be used for meat.

Sheep

Sheep are popular to be a dual-purpose breed because they are suitable for both meat and fleece production. The four major products from sheep are lamb, mutton, wool, and milk.

Goats

Amongst domesticated animals, goats are one of the oldest. Like other breeds, goats are solitary, social and a great source of meat, milk, and even hair.

Chickens

This type of animal also has a place on the farm. Their main purpose is to produce eggs or meat for human consumption.

Pigs

This breed is prized for its meat. Ham, smoked pork, gammon, bacon, and sausage are other common products that are made from pork.

Conclusion

Raising farm animals is an enormous business. Those animals have always contributed to human societies by supplying food, pulling loads, guarding property, and so on. Hope that you have known about types of farm animals after reading my article and don’t get frustrated with tons of classification ways above!

Reference:

What Is The Most Profitable Fish To Farm?

Most Profitable Fish To Farm

Today, the demand for fish and its product is growing continuously, hence there is no doubt that fish farming has become a money-making industry. However, some fish farmers are still struggling to be successful in this business as they still wonder “what is the most profitable fish to farm?” or “how to cut down on feed cost to maximize profit?”. Let’s find out the answers in my article below.

Challenges of fish farms

Farm fishing industry is a double-edged sword since it can help you sit on a goldmine or bring you closer to the abyss. Here comes the list of factors that can affect your fish farm so that you can handle them efficiently to access the profitability of the fish farming business.

Fish are too sensitive to manage

Most fish possess highly developed sense organs. Therefore, a minor mistake can lead to degradation or even mass fish deaths which may end in an enormous loss of income.

Fish farming consume significant amounts of capital

Unlike poultry or livestock, fish farming requires more thorough management strategies and tons of cash for pond building, fish feed cost, manpower used during cultivation and harvesting, and construction maintenance.

FISH FARMING IS NOT EASY

Selling fish is not easy

Due to production costs, fish from farms often cost more than fish from ponds, rivers, or sea. Consumers prefer cheaper fish, thus it is challenging to compete with other fish sellers.

All you get is flesh

If raising livestock and poultry can create by-products to sell to other farmers for extra profit (such as manure for plants), but in fishery, what you get is only flesh.

Popular fish species to farm

If you are new to the idea of fish farming, you might be wondering what fish species you should cultivate on your farm. Here is the reliable list of fish species that are suitable for aquaculture:

  • Catfish

Catfish is one of the easiest fish species to cultivate. This kind of fish is popular around the world because of its health benefits and market demand. The three most prominent catfish species include blue catfish, channel catfish, and flathead catfish.

  • Atlantic cod

Atlantic cod contributes a huge quantity in the fish farming business in Northern Europe and North America’s eastern coast. The market size is from 2 to 4 kg and is achieved within 24-36 months after hatching.

  • Grass carp

Grass carp is popular as white amur in the US. This is a freshwater fish, hence the flowing water and changes in water are significant to stimuli natural spawning. According to some studies, grass carp can live an average of 5 to 9 years, with the oldest surviving up to 11 years.

  • Rohu fish

Rohu farming is another lucrative business. Rohu is the most favored fish species among the cultivated Indian major carps used in carp polyculture systems. Under normal culture conditions, Rohu can attain 35-45cm total length and 700-800g in one year.

Rohu fish

  • Salmon

Salmon is one of the most widely consumed fish throughout the world. The three most common farmed salmon are Atlantic salmon, Chinook, and Coho. Farmed salmon are vaccinated to prevent them from disease outbreaks and rarely require additional medications.

  • Silver carp

Silver carp farming demands small capital investment. Silver carp is a freshwater species and can tolerate a wide range of temperatures (43-82°F). Pay attention to water quality to achieve a high hatching rate.

  • Tilapia

Tilapia is a well-known fish species in fish farming due to its high protein, large size, disease-resistant, and growth capabilities. It is a tropical fish, so the ideal water temperature for Tilapia is usually between 82 and 86°F.

  • Tuna

Tuna is carnivorous which means they can eat other fish. Farming tuna can be valuable owing to strong market demand, fast growth rate, the convenient ratio of edible meat to body weight, and tolerance to wide temperature conditions. Tuna is typically farmed in net pens offshore or in recirculation systems.

What is the most profitable fish to farm?

Due to the cost of pond or tank construction, water management, and maintenance together with the cost of other assets, you may not be making a profit in the first year. However, you can normally start making significant profits from the fish farming business after more than two fish production cycles.

Profit of fish farming relies on loads of factors:

  • Financial factors: feed costs, rent payment, labor costs…
  • Technical and biological factors: water and temperature, the type of pond, fish diseases…
  • Additional factors: location of farms, demand, and supply, special holiday celebrations…

Indeed, it is not easy to answer the question of what is the most profitable fish to farm as it depends mostly on the market demand. A fish may not do well locally but greatly on abroad.

Statistics showed that tilapia is becoming the most profitable fish to farm in many countries. It is one of the best-selling species and most widely-eaten like shrimp and salmon. On the other hand, this type of fish survives and breeds in warm water (82-86°F) and will die when the temperature drop below 55°F. Therefore, tilapia will thrive in warmer regions such as India, South Africa, Latin America, etc.

fish farming business

Reduce feed cost to get more profit

Feed often represent up to 70% of the operational cost for most fish farms, so appropriate feed management results in reducing feed costs, and enhancing production efficiency and profitability of farms. For most large or medium-scale fish farms, it is more economic-efficient to produce fish feed pellets by themselves rather than buying from local fish stores.

Different kinds of fish require marginally different vitamins, nutrients, and minerals. Accordingly, you can customize the food for specific fish to give your fish a healthy diet and tailor the food to the exact dietary requirements of them.

Conclusion

Fish farming is one of the fastest-growing sectors of the global food production industry. How much is it profitable – depends on many factors. Consequently, identify the most profitable fish to farm is the first step to maximize your profit margins.